Introduction to Patristics in English Bibliography

This attempts to organize some of the English language resources for Patristic studies. We move from the most general to the more specific. I also include sections at the end for important foreign language translations of patristic literature and the sources for the the original texts in Greek and Latin. The universe of patristic studies is large. Thus this is necessarily a small subset that I have culled based on my own experiences.

General Dictionaries

These general dictionaries provide brief articles on topics related to early church history and the fathers. They provide an excellent starting point for further study or a quick reference for important concepts.

Cross, F. L., and Elizabeth A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Di Berardino, Angelo, ed. Encyclopedia of the early church. Translated by Adrian Walford. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Ferguson, Everett, Michael P. McHugh, and Frederick W. Norris, eds. Encyclopedia of early Christianity. Garland reference library of the humanities. New York: Garland Pub., 1997.

Döpp, Siegmar, and Wilhelm Geerlings, eds. Dictionary of early Christian literature. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co., 2000.

Patristic Era History & Councils

Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). Vol. 1. 5 vols. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Part one of the five volume series on covering the history of the Christian church from foundation to modern times. This covers the establishment of the church and the earliest theological controversies. The text is thoroughly cross-referenced to the contemporaneous works of the early church fathers indicated by name and book reference in the margin. This also contains an excellent scriptural index and extensive bibliography.

________. The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). Vol. 2. 5 vols. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Part two of the five volume series on covering the history of the Christian church from foundation to modern times. This volume covers only the Churches of the Eastern Empire. The west for this period is covered in volume three. This gives an excellent background to the theological controversies of period, including the great east/west split. The text is thoroughly cross-referenced to the contemporaneous works of the early church fathers indicated by name and book reference in the margin. This also contains an excellent scriptural index and extensive bibliography.

Freyne, Seán. The world of the New Testatment. Vol. 2 New Testament Message, ed. Wilfrid Harrington. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1980.

Freyne provides a brief cultural history of the first centuries of the Christian era. The book covers the historical and cultural background of the Greek and Roman aspects of the empire. The Jewish background is dealt with as well. With this background the formation of Christian is discussed.

Taft, Robert F. The Byzantine rite: a short history. Collegeville, Mn: Liturgical Press, 1992.

This short hundred-page booklet provides a quick synopsis of Byzantine liturgical development. This provides both quick reference as to why we have our current liturgical tradition but also well documented footnotes for further study in any area of interest.

Brown, Raymond Edward. The churches the apostles left behind. New York: Paulist Press, 1984.

In this brief hundred and fifty-page study Brown collects what can be gleaned from scripture and primary sources about the church immediately after the death of the apostles. Brown terms this the “sub-apostolic” church. Hard information from this time period is very sparse. But Brown organizes what information is available and creates plausible pictures of the individual communities described.

Angold, Michael. Eastern Christianity. Vol. 5 The Cambridge history of Christianity. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

This 700 page volume in the Oxford series on church history focuses on the eastern churches. This is a collection of 23 essays by various authors covering the scope of eastern churches, time periods and issues.

Brown, Peter, and Robert Lamont. The world of late antiquity, AD 150-750. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971.

This period in the western Roman empire marks the transition from the fall of Rome to the foundations for the medieval church. The book is divided into two sections, the first covering the transition from classic Roman authority to a rise in power for Christians. In the second section the book covers the political transitions in the west following the fall of Rome and how these created the rise of the medieval church. In the east a different dynamic is in effect as the capital city remains intact but the empire is still challenged at the edges.

Cunningham, Mary. Faith in the Byzantine world. IVP histories. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2002.

Covers in brief the history of the Byzantine church from the founding at Constantine to the fall to the Ottoman Turks (330CE and 1453CE). Thematically arranged with liturgy, architecture, iconography and relations with the Latin west.

General Patristic Studies

Amirav, Hagit. Rhetoric and tradition: John Chrysostom on Noah and the flood. Vol. 12 Traditio Exegetica Graeca, ed. Lucas Van Rompay. Louvain, Belgique: Éditions Peeters, 2003.

Bardenhewer, Otto. Patrology: the lives and works of the fathers of the church. Translated by Thomas J. Shahan. 2nd ed. ATLA monograph preservation program. St. Louis, Mo: Herder and Herder, 1908.

Geography and individual organize this classic introduction to the fathers. Bardenhewer provides a brief biographical sketch of the major fathers and an overview of their most important work. This is a great quick reference guide for placing names and works into context.

Barrois, George A. The face of Christ in the Old Testament. Crestwood, N.Y.: St Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1974.

Barrois creates a thematic introduction to the Old Testament from a patristic perspective. This is neither a patristic introduction nor an Old Testament introduction. Instead, the book explores the views of Christ common in patristic literature that have an Old Testament background.

Brock, Sebastian P. A brief outline of Syriac literature. Vol. 9 Moran Etho. Kottayam: St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, 1997.

________. Spirituality in the Syriac tradition. Vol. 2. 2nd rev. & enl. ed. Moran Etho series. Kottayam: St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, 2005.

________. An introduction to Syriac studies. Rev. 2nd ed. Gorgias handbooks ; v. 4. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2006.

This is designed as an introductory text for students intending to learn the Syriac language. However, this is not a language study or grammar. There are brief histories and background information on literature, society and the relationship of Syriac to Aramaic studies. Roughly half the book is devoted to a detailed tour of language resources that the student of Syriac will need. Instructions are provided in how to use the reference grammars and lexicon as well as other resources.

Campenhausen, Hans. The fathers of the Greek Church. New York: Pantheon, 1959.

Campenhausen provides short biographies of twelve Greek fathers. The book covers Justin, Irenaeus, Clement, Origen, Eusebius, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, Synesius, Chrysostom and Cyril of Alexandria.

Cholij, Roman. Theodore the Stoudite: the ordering of holiness. Oxford theological monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

This three-part study contains a brief biography of Theodore then a treatise on order and one on holiness. This is not a translation of work by Theodore, but a study of the concepts of order and holiness throughout his writings.

Chre¯stou, Panagiotes K., and George Dion Dragas. Greek Orthodox patrology : an introduction to the study of the church fathers. Rollinsford, N.H.: Orthodox Research Institute, 2005.

Translated from the original Greek, these are topical papers on Greek Patristics. They cover the full range of patristic history, controveries and eras from the dawn of Christianity to the fall of Constantinople.

Chrysostom, John, and Stephen Neill. Chrysostom and his message, a selection from the sermons of St. John Chrysostom of Antioch and Constantinople. Translated by Stephen Neill. New York,: Association Press, 1963.

Cowley, Roger. The traditional interpretation of the Apocalypse of St. John in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Vol. 33 University of Cambridge Oriental Publications. New York: University of Cambridge Press, 1983.

Florovsky, Georges. The Byzantine ascetic and spiritual fathers. Translated by Raymond Miller. Vol. 10 The Collected Works. Vaduz, Europa: Büchervertriebsanstalt, 1987.

________. The Eastern Fathers of the fifth century. Translated by Raymond Miller. Vol. 8 The Collected Works. Vaduz, Europa: Büchervertriebsanstalt, 1987.

________. The Eastern Fathers of the fourth century. Translated by Catherine Edmunds. Vol. 7 The Collected Works. Vaduz, Europa: Büchervertriebsanstalt, 1987.

________. The Eastern Fathers of the sixth to eighth centuries. Translated by Raymond Miller. Vol. 9 The Collected Works. Vaduz, Europa: Büchervertriebsanstalt, 1987.

This series of books by Father Florovsky were originally delivered as lectures in Russian during the thirties. They provide a basic background, biography and history of the major fathers in the period.

Gambero, Luigi. Mary and the fathers of the Church. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999.

This thematically arranged work exams how the fathers interpret Mary and her role in salvation history. Each theme is covered separately and various fathers are cited as examples of the applications.

Grant, Robert M. Greek Apologists of the second century. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1988.

This historical study works at placing the Christian apologists into context during the first three centuries. This covers the background of apologetics in the empire and the relationship of the apologists to civil authority. The book deals with the work of Antoninus, Justin, Apollinaris, Melito, Athenagoras and Theophilus.

Greer, Rowan A. Theodore of Mopsuestia, exegete and theologian. London: Faith Press, 1961.

This book focuses on Theodore’s Christology and the exegetical methods he used to derive it. Theodore was the source for the Nestorian heresy’s Christology, although he died before they came into power. Here Greer examines how this Christology was derived from Theodore’s exegesis, especially the Gospel of John.

Hall, Christopher A. Reading scripture with the church fathers. Ancient Christian Commentary, ed. Thomas Oden. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1998.

This book is a supplement volume to the Ancient Christian Commentary on scripture series dealing with patristic exegesis. There is a general introduction to the fathers and the relationship of their methods to modern study. Separate chapters review four main figures in the east and west in patristic exegesis. Hall also devotes a chapter each to both Antioch and Alexandria and their schools of interpretation.

________. Learning theology with the church fathers. Ancient Christian Commentary, ed. Thomas Oden. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2002.

This book is a supplement volume to the Ancient Christian Commentary on scripture series dealing with the major theological controversies in patristic literature. Each chapter is organized around these themes: Christology, Trinity, Holy Spirit, Sin & Grace, God’s providence, scripture, resurrection and the church.

Hardy, Edward Rochie. Christology of the later Fathers. Vol. 3 The Library of Christian classics. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1954.

Contains translations with introductions of Athanasius, Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa’s works on Christology. These are the “live” arguments contemporaneous with the council decisions on the nature of Christ and the incarnation. This also includes translations of the documents of the councils related to Christology.

Kelly, John N. Golden mouth : the story of John Chrysostom–ascetic, preacher, bishop. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Mayer, Wendy, and Pauline Allen. John Chrysostom. The Early Church Fathers, ed. Carol Harrison. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Meredith, Anthony. Gregory of Nyssa. The Early Church Fathers, ed. Carol Harrison. London: Routledge, 1999.

Mitchell, Margaret M. The heavenly trumpet: John Chrysostom and the art of Pauline interpretation. Louisville: john Knox Press, 2002.

John Chrysostom loved to preach on Paul. This book organizes the homiletic expressions of John on Paul thematically. This extensive study (over five hundred pages) is fully indexed and well documented. There are two appendices, one with a translation of John’s Homilies in praise of Paul and the second with a discussion of Chrysostom Pauline iconography.

Nyssa, Gregory. From glory to glory: Texts from Gregory of Nyssa’s mystical writings. Translated by Jean Daniélou. ed. Herbert Musurillo. New York: Scribner, 1961.

O’Leary, De Lacy. The Syriac church and fathers : a brief review of the subject. Vol. 23 Gorgias reprint series. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2002.

Originally delivered as introductory lectures to Syriac Christianity at Bristol University in the early 20th century. They place the Syriac church in context with the Roman empire and the rise of Byzantine Chrisendom. The focus is on the liturature of Syriac Christianity.

Perthes, Frederic M. Life of John Chrysostom. Translated by Alvah Hovey and David B Ford. Boston, MA: John P. Jewett and Co., 1854.

Quasten, Johannes. Patrology: The beginnings of Patristic literature. Vol. 1. Utrecht: Spectrum Publishers, 1962.

A translation of the original two volume Italian work into three volumes in English. A fourth volume then supplements the work of Quasten by the scholars from the same Augustine institute for which he worked. The series provides a good short history of patristic studies.

Sadowski, Frank. The Church fathers on the Bible: selected readings. New York: Alba House, 1987.

This collection of writings is thematic around the interpretation, reception and inspiration of scripture. Part one is forty-six patristic writings on various scripture topics. The second part of the book has brief biographical accounts of the fathers in the book.

Shea, Dominic J. “Patristic interpretation of the Protoevangelium.” Marian Studies 12 (1961): 111-164.

The article argues that Gen 3:15 is interpreted as a reference to Mary at least implicitly from a very early period in Patristic exegesis. The references are arranged chronologically and include: Justin, Ireanus, Cyprian, Serapion, Ephraem, Ambrose, Pseudo-Jerome, Epiphanius, Prudenyius, Isadore of Pelusium, Hesychius, Leo, Chrysippus, and Isadore of Seville.

Simonetti, Manlio. Biblical interpretation in the early church: an historical introduction to patristic exegesis. Translated by John A. Hughes. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994.

Simonetti provides a strong introduction to the different schools of patristic exegesis and methods. He provides chapters on Antioch, Alexandria and the Cappadocians. He also looks at the methods of Augustine and Jerome in the west. The book compares these orthodox methods to the gnostic ones and provides a section on later developments in the fifth and six centuries both east and west.

Stephens, W. R. W. Saint Chrysostom: his life and times. London: John Murray, 1872.

Tataryn, Myroslaw I. Augustine and Russian Orthodoxy: Russian Orthodox theologians and Augustine of Hippo a twentieth century dialogue. Lanham: International Scholars Publications, 2000.

After a general introduction and historical background the work is organized by Russian theologian and their interactions with the thought of Augustine. This covers the 19th and 20th century period and concentrates on the Russian theologians in the Paris academy.

Tieck, William Arthur. “Basil of Caesarea and the Bible.” Columbia University, 1953.

This dissertation is an overview of Basil’s life and approach to scripture. A treasure of research tied back to his homilies with numerous examples. There are sections dealing with the relationship of philosophy to scripture and a section on inspiration and authority of scripture in Basil’s writtings.

Torrance, Thomas F. Divine meaning: Studies in patristic hermeneutics. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1995.

This book is a collection of twelve essays on various aspects of patristic exegesis. All but one essay are on Greek fathers and their methods, one is on Hilary of Poitiers. The essays are well documented and argued. The introduction provides a good background patristic biblical interpretation.

Tsirpanlis, Constantine N. Introduction to eastern patristic thought and Orthodox theology. Vol. 30 Theology and life series. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press: A Michael Glazier Book, 1991.

Tsirpanlis organizes this treatise thematically. The book covers the thought of Greek Fathers on the themes of Creation, Anthropology, Christology, Pneumatology, and Eschatology.

Patristic Devotional Anthologies

These editions are collections of various patristic writers organized for short reading selections rather than a collection of a particular father’s work.

Carroll, Thomas K., and Thomas P. Halton. Liturgical practice in the fathers. Vol. 21 Message of the Fathers of the Church, ed. Thomas P. Halton. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1988.

This book collects comments by the early Church Fathers about the liturgical year into chapters for each major season. The authors provide short sections of connective text but the bulk of the work is commentary straight from the fathers themselves.

Coniaris, Anthony M. Reflection on the priesthood: an anthology from the church fathers and contemporary sources. Minneapolis: Light and Life Pub. Co., 1993.

Thematic collection of patristic quotations regarding the role of the priesthood.

Harakas, Emily. Through the year with the church fathers. Minneapolis, MN: Light and Life Pub. Co., 1985.

Hudson, Christopher D., J. Alan Sharrer, and Lindsay Vanker. Day by day with the early church fathers. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999.

This is setup as a page a day comment taken from the church fathers. There is a scripture quotation and patristic pericope for each day. The book also has a section with very short biographical sketches on the fathers.

Manley, Johanna. The Bible and the Holy Fathers for Orthodox: daily scripture readings and commentary for Orthodox Christians. Menlo Park, CA.: Monastery Books, 1990.

This collects segments of patristic homilies around pericopes in liturgical use in the Byzantine tradition. The collection is well organized.

Toal, M. F. The Sunday sermons of the great Fathers. 4 vols. Swedesboro, NJ: Preservation Press, 1996.

This four-volume collection has homilies for patristic sources organized by the Sunday reading cycle of the Latin Church prior to Vatican II. The order of the readings has no connection with the Byzantine lectionary cycle. But the volumes are well organized enough to find any reading of interest.

Sadowski, Frank. The Church fathers on the Bible : selected readings. New York: Alba House, 1987.

This collection of writings is thematic around the interpretation, reception and inspiration of scripture. Part one is forty-six patristic writings on various scripture topics. The second part of the book has brief biographical accounts of the fathers in the book.

Patristic Catena

The catena is an assembly of quotations from the fathers on a passage of scripture. They provide a commentary on a book of scripture from the homilies of multiple fathers. The format was very popular in the middle ages.

Aquinas, Thomas. Catena Aurea. Translated by Henry Parker. 7 vols. Reprint ed. Albany: Preserving Christian Publications, 1998.

This Catena is a line by line commentary on the Gospels from the fathers assembled by Thomas Aquinas. His sources are the early fathers.

Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture, 27 Vols. ed. Thomas C. Oden. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998.

This series is a fresh translation of patristic homilies setup as a catena section by section. The complete series covers both the Old and New Testament. Each volume has a short introduction on the books covered. The book is then divided into pericopes and the commentary is has quotations from multiple fathers for each section of the pericope.

Manley, Johanna. Wisdom, let us attend: Job, the Fathers, and the Old Testament. Menlo Park, CA: Monastery Books, 1997.

Manley, Johanna. Isaiah through the ages. Menlo Park, CA: Monastery Books, 1995.

These two collections follow a verse by verse commentary approach for the books of Job and Isaiah. The citations are from multiple fathers.

Patristic Harmonies

A harmony of the four Gospels retells the story as a single book combining the events in all four Gospels to a single narrative. There are two ancient harmonies of the four Gospels that are still extant, Tatian and Augustine. The post reformation period saw a renewed interest in harmonies and many of the leading figures of the reformation produced one.

Tatian. “Diatessaron.” In Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. Philip Schaeff. Vol. 9, 35-140. Peabody, MA: Hendrikson, 1995.

The Diatessaron is the oldest harmony of the Gospels. This work was widely circulated in the ancient world and even used liturgically in the Syriac Church.

Augustine. “Harmony of the four Gospels.” In Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, ed. Philip Schaeff. Vol. 6 First Series, 65-236. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991.

Augustine occasionally refers to his harmony of the Gospels as exhaustive and difficult work. He produced this harmony to answer critics of the historical inconsistencies in the Gospel accounts. The account intersperses defensive commentary on the Gospel stories with the harmony of the Gospel accounts itself.

Patristic English Translation Series

These are series of publications that put out English translations with introductory material of full Patristic texts. Each volume in the series is usually devoted to a single author and frequently a single text. These are the sources to check if you are interested in finding a particular father’s work in English.

Ancient Christian commentary on Scripture, InterVarsity Press

Ancient Christian Writers, Newman Press

Ante-Nicene Fathers Series & Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Series, Christian Literature Publishing Co. 1887 (reprints T&T Clark Eerdmans, Hendrickson)

Classics of Western Spirituality, Paulist Press

The Fathers of the Church, Catholic University of America Press

The Fathers of the Church: A new translation, Fathers of the Church, Inc., New York

Gorgias Press, Piscataway, NJ (Armenian, Coptic & Syriac translations)

Message of the Fathers of the Church, Michael, Glazier

Patristic Translations, Chrysostom Press, House Springs, Missouri

Popular Patristic Series, St Vladimir’s Seminary Press

Society of Biblical Literature Texts and Translations, Scholars Press

Text and Translation Society, Philo Press Amsterdam

Patristic Translations in English (Not from a Series)

Chrysostom, John, and Elizabeth A. Clark. On virginity ; Against remarriage. Translated by Sally Rieger Shore. Studies in women and religion ; v. 9. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen Press, 1983.

Chrysostom, John, and Robert C. Hill. Commentary on the Psalms. Translated by Robert C. Hill. Vol. 1. 2 vols. Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1998.

Covers Psalms 4-13 and 44-50. There is an introduction and bibliography.

________. Commentary on the Psalms. Translated by Robert C. Hill. Vol. 2. 2 vols. Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1998.

Covers Psalms 109-150. missing Psalm 119, too long for commentary in one session.

Climacus, John. The ladder of divine ascent / To the shepherd. Translated by Lazarus Moore. Rev ed. Boston, MA: Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1991.

This is the classic text of Byzantine monastic spirituality, the standard required reading for those entering the monastic life. The ladder outlines 30 steps in spiritual growth from earth to heaven. The work is an allegory based on the vision of Jacob at Bethel of a ladder from earth to heaven. The steps are things to avoid and actions to perform to progress in the spiritual life. This edition has a seventy page introduction with the full background and history of the work.

Gregory, of Nyssa. Gregory of Nyssa, Homilies on Ecclesiastes: an English version with supporting studies : proceedings of the Seventh International Colloquium on Gregory of Nyssa (St. Andrews, 5-10 September 1990). Translated by Stuart George Hall. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1993.

Oecumenius, Bishop of Tricca. The complete commentary of Oecumenius on the Apocalypse, now printed for the first time from manuscripts at messina, Rome, Salonika, and Athos. Vol. 23 Humanistic Series, ed. Herman Charles Hoskier. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1928.

Symeon, New Theologian. Hymns of Divine love. Translated by George Maloney. Denville, NJ: Dimension Books.

Waddell, Helen. The desert fathers. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1977.

Important Patristic Series (Not English)

Most Patristic research and translation is not happening in English but rather French and German. In fact, much of what is in English are translations of works and commentaries that were originally published in French or German. These are the important translation series in non-English publications. The Sources Chrétiennes is also the secondary publisher of texts in the original languages.

Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, Peeters, Lovanii

Forschungen zur Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen

Orientalia Chriistiana analecta, Pont. Institutum Studiorum Orientalium, Roma

Patrologia Orientalis, Firmin-Didot, Paris

Sources Chrétiennes, Éditions du Cerf, Paris

Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin

Original Text Sources

The main series of books containing the original Greek and Latin texts for the fathers was published by J-P Migne. These are the standard reference for patristic quotations and cover well over two hundred volumes of text. The Greek series is known as the Patrologiae Graeca, usually called simply the PG. The Latin series is the PL or Patrologiae Latina. Volumes are clearly named for the fathers they contain. There are also five volumes of index for the series. The main chronological sequence of authors in the PL runs from about AD 200 to AD 1216.

Electronic texts of the Latin and Greek fathers are also available. The PL is available as the Patrologia Latina Database from ProQuest. Another electronic source for Latin texts is the Library of Latin Texts from Brepols publishing. This is a broader collection of latin texts from Antiquity, the Patristic period until 500; the Vulgate; the Patristic period from 501 to 735; the Middle Ages, from 736 to 1500; and the neo-Latin period from 1501 to 1965. The University of California collects the Greek fathers along with other ancient Greek texts in the on-going publication of the Thesaurus Linguae Grecae (TLG). These periodic releases of a CD-ROM and on-line database are compiling a much broader collection of early Greek literature than just the fathers. To date they have included 3700 authors.

All of these resources are expensive but are generally available for research in good academic libraries.

Patrologiæ cursus completus. Series græca, 161 vols. ed. Jacque-Paul Migne. Paris: J.-P. Migne, 1857.

Patrologiæ cursus completus. Series latina, 217 vols. ed. Jacque-Paul Migne. Paris: J.-P. Migne, 1855.

Patrologia Latina Database. from ProQuest Information and Learning Company, 1996. Accessed CD-Rom, On-line.

Tombeur, Paul. CLCLT Library of Latin Texts. Version 6. Brepols Publishers, 2005.

Thesaurus linguae graecae. Version E. University of California, 2000. CD-ROM.

Originally Posted July 05, 2009
Last Revised on February 14, 2011